EEA: Resource efficiency in Europe benefits of doing more with less

Staudamm (Foto: © Erich Westendarp /

Copenhagen, Denmark – Many European countries are realising the economic benefits of making more efficient use of material resources like metals, fossil fuels and minerals. But more action is needed to underpin this trend in resource efficiency with stronger policies on energy, material resources, waste management and on circular economy. Between 2000 and 2014, resource use in the European Union as a whole fell both in absolute terms (down by 12%) and per person (from 15.5 to 13.1 tonnes per person). These are the findings from a new European Environment Agency (EEA) assessment.

The findings show that only three countries, Austria, Finland and Germany, adopted dedicated national strategies for material resource efficiency. Two further countries have dedicated strategies at a regional level, in Flanders (Belgium), and Scotland (United Kingdom). Nine countries have adopted targets for national material resource efficiency: Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Portugal and Slovenia. In most cases, these targets are based on gross domestic product relative to domestic material consumption (GDP/DMC) — the EU’s lead resource productivity indicator.

Economic benefit is most important driver

A majority of countries (26) identified certain waste streams and secondary materials as the most common group of priority materials. Key waste streams are plastic and packaging (17 countries), construction and demolition waste (16 countries), and food waste (15 countries). Energy sources, like fossil fuels and including renewables, were mentioned by 18 countries as priority resources.

The economic benefit of improving resource efficiency is the most important driver in many countries, indicating that the logic of doing more with less has been widely embraced. The most recurrent drivers to improve efficiency were the desire to increase competitiveness, to secure the supply of raw materials and energy and reduce dependence on imports, and to lower pressures on the environment.

An in-depth look

The EEA report ‘More from less – material resource efficiency in Europe,’ takes an in-depth look at national approaches and policies on resource efficiency and explores similarities and differences in related policies, strategies and targets. The report builds on a survey, in which 32 of the 39 EEA member and cooperating countries took part. Countries provided detailed information on their resource efficiency polices and examples of good practice initiatives.

The main objective of the report is to encourage countries to share information and their experiences in the development of resource efficiency policies. The work contributes to broadening know-how on resource efficiency and the circular economy and increases understanding of policy approaches in these areas.

The report was produced together with the Agency’s network of member and cooperating countries, known as Eionet and the European Topic Centre on Waste and Materials in a Green Economy (ETC/WMGE). „More from less — material resource efficiency in Europe“ and the accompanying 32 individual country profiles can be downloaded under

Source: European Environment Agency (EEA)